Gold is a transition metal and has been used as a currency for centuries. The word gold is derived from the Ango-Saxon language which means yellow. In Latin Language, gold is referred to as Aurum that means shining dawn. Because of its strength, hardness, resistance, colour, shine and interesting properties, gold is used for many purposes. One of the interesting key facts about this metal is that less than fifty percent of gold in the world is under the earth crust.
The chemical formation of gold makes it is a very hard inert metal. It is highly malleable as one ounce of this metal can be stretched into a sixty metre long wire. This metal in its pure form is very soft to use and it is usually mixed with other metals to make an alloy. This alloy, which becomes strong enough to be forged in any shape or size, is then used as a jewellery manufacturing material. This metal alloys are made to be long lasting and durable so that they can be used for lifetimes.
Te high quality alloys of this metal are made by mixing it with pure metals like silver and copper. Pure form of Gold-bullion is very dense and hard to use. In pure form, the specific gravity of gold is 19.3. This specific gravity of gold must be decreased to around 15 to make it usable. The purest form of gold bars are only found in Scotland. The purest form of gold available is about 22.8 carats.
As per the chemical properties of this metal, it is a transition element. It is placed in the centre of inert transition elements on the periodic table. This metal, being very stable and un-reactive, is not soluble at ordinary solvents. The only solution for dissolving the gold-bars was discovered by a Muslim scientist Jabbir Bin Hayyan in 800 A.D. This gold-bullion dissolving solution is known as Aqua Regia. It is a mixture of concentrated Nitric and Hydrochloric acid. To detect the presence of Gold in any mixture or alloy, Nitric acid is used. Many Jewellery makers use it in acid tests for gold-refining and for checking its purity.
Due to its shine, beauty and resistance to chemical attacks and chemical reactions, gold is widely used as a precious metal for making jewellery as well as investment. The Ancient civilizations of Egypt initiated the use of gold in jewellery. Except Antarctica, all the continents of the world have gold-mines. They utilise this gold for commercial purposes
Compared to its high resistance to chemical reactions, gold has relatively less resistance for heat. Gold-bullion has a melting point of 1063 Centigrade and can be melted and hammered into different shapes. For wedding rings and other wedding jewellery items, gold is the ultimate choice of everyone.
This metal has a huge number of idealistic qualities, that have made it the most popular and the most commonly used metal. One of its most favourable qualities includes its resistance towards rusting.
Another key fact about this metal is that the first gold currency, the gold coins, was used by Lydia, Turkey. South Africa is the largest producer of gold in the world. However, the largest mine in the world is located in the United States.